In a recent case in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, a plaintiffs’ motion for final certification of a collective action under the Fair Labor Standards Act was denied. At its core, Plaintiff Fred Adami and two remaining Opt-In Plaintiffs alleged that their employer, Cardo Windows, Inc. mischaracterized them as independent contractors, rather than employees, and asserted claims for unpaid overtime.
Judge Simandle found that while the Plaintiffs properly alleged common employer practices, they failed to sufficiently demonstrate the similarity between the circumstances of their employment. For example, while Adami was a long-time employee that was at the core of Cardo’s operations, the Opt-In Plaintiffs “worked sporadically and had differing work environments from Adami.” Adami v. Cardo Windows, Inc., No. 12-2804 (JBS/JS), 2016 WL 1241798, at *2 (D.N.J. Mar. 30, 2016).
Specifically, Adami and the Opt-In Plaintiffs worked a considerably different number of hours, which changed on an individual basis. Schedules varied based on customer needs, and the Opt-In Plaintiffs could take breaks when they wished. In addition, Defendants noted that the Opt-In Plaintiffs were entitled to hire “helpers” for each project, and were able to choose both the number and how much each were paid, which changed the profit or loss for each Opt-In Plaintiff. Lastly, while Adami worked for Cardo for approximately ten years, the Opt-In Plaintiffs had worked at the company for just a few months. Subsequently, the Court found that while Adami’s employment relationship had been described in significant detail, there was a considerable amount of evidence that showed Adami’s employment was “the exception rather than the rule.” Adami, 2016 WL 1241798, at *6.
In so finding, the Court applied the “circumstances of the whole activity” test to determine whether an employment relationship existed and noted that it is the plaintiff’s burden to show by a preponderance of the evidence that “all members of the class are all employees covered by the FLSA.” Id. (emphasis in original).
Ultimately, Judge Simandle held that the Opt-In Plaintiffs were closer to independent contractors than employees. As such, the circumstances of each Opt-In Plaintiffs’ employment were too dissimilar for a collective action.
Employers should consider the similarity between their employees’ work, and the degree to which the company controls the day-to-day actions of its employees to determine if they are truly employees or independent contractors. Hill Wallack employment law attorneys are available to help navigate these options and how they may affect clients in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.